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Annotated Publications

CADI Research has published more than 60 research studies, editorials, and reviews in prestigious American, British, and Indian medical journals. More than half of these are in peer-reviewed journals accessible online through Google Scholar and PubMed anywhere in the world and some of them can be downloaded from this website.

Annotated Bibliography of Key Articles from CADI Research

  1. Enas EA, Thomas I. Immigrant Indian Males – Sitting Ducks for Heart Attacks; A Cause for Alarm – And Call for Action. J Am Assoc Phys India 1990;2:5-8. The very first article to sound the alarm on heart disease among Asian Indian immigrants in the US.
  2. Enas EA, Yusuf S, Mehta JL. Prevalence of coronary artery disease in Asian Indians. Am J Cardiol. Oct 1 1992;70(9):945-949. The first scientific article in the US medical literature addressing the prematurity and severity of heart disease among Indians worldwide.
  3. Enas EA, Mehta J. Malignant coronary artery disease in young Asian Indians: thoughts on pathogenesis, prevention, and therapy. Clinical Cardiology. Mar 1995;18(3):131-135. Addresses the malignant nature of heart disease in many young Indians even in the absence of traditional risk factors.
  4. Enas EA, Garg A, Davidson MA, Nair VM, Huet BA, Yusuf S. Coronary heart disease and its risk factors in first-generation immigrant Asian Indians to the United States of America. Indian Heart Journal. Jul-Aug 1996;48(4):343-353. For the first time, The Coronary Artery Disease in Asian Indians(CADI) Study demonstrated a three to four fold higher rate of heart disease and diabetes among Asian Indian physicians and their family members in the US. The research was consistent with the pattern observed among Asian Indian general population worldwide.
  5. Enas EA. Coronary artery disease epidemic in Indians: a cause for alarm and call for action. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. Nov 2000;98(11):694-695, 697-702. Addresses the global epidemic of heart disease among Indians in India and the Indian diasporas.
  6. Enas EA, Mohan V, Deepa M, Farooq S, Pazhoor S, Chennikkara H. The metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia among Asian Indians: a population with high rates of diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. Journal of the Cardiometabolic Syndrome. Fall 2007;2(4):267-275. Addresses the need for using Indian specific cut points for waist circumference in diagnosing metabolic syndrome which is a forerunner of both heart disease and diabetes and found in one in three Indian men and one in two Indian women.
  7. Superko HR, Enas EA, Kotha P, Bhat NK, Garrett B. High-density lipoprotein subclass distribution in individuals of Asian Indian descent: the National Asian Indian Heart Disease Project. Prev Cardiol. Spring 2005;8(2):81-86. Reports the quantitative and qualitative differences in HDL cholesterol between Indians and whites in the US along with high prevelance of lipoprotien(a).
  8. Enas EA. Cooking oil, cholesterol and coronary artery disease. Indian Heart Journal. 1996;48:423-428. Addresses the myths and misconceptions regarding cooking oils and media that are rampant among Indians worldwide and contribute to high prevelance of dyslipidemia in this population.
  9. Enas EA, Senthilkumar A, Chennikkara H, Bjurlin MA. Prudent diet and preventive nutrition from pediatrics to geriatrics: current knowledge and practical recommendations. Indian Heart Journal. Jul-Aug 2003;55(4):310-338. Addresses contaminated vegetarianism and other dietary factors as to why Indian vegetarians have as much heart disease and diabetes as non-vegetarians along with the stratagies for consuming a heart healthy diet.
  10. Enas EA. Why is there an epidemic of malignant CAD in young Indians? Asian J Clin Cardiol. 1998;1:43-59. Addresses the high prevalence and crucial role of many emerging or non-traditional risk factors responsible for the extreme prematurity, severity and early death among Indians who are too young to die.
  11. Enas EA, Chacko V, Pazhoor SG, Chennikkara H, Devarapalli HP. Dyslipidemia in South Asian patients. Curr Atheroscler Rep. Nov 2007;9(5):367-374. A contemporary review of the crucial role of cholesrerol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins that makes Indians vulnerable to early heart disease.
  12. Enas EA. Management of coronary risk factors: Role of lifestyle modification. Cardiology Today. 1998;2:17-29. Addresses the importance of eating right, exercising regularly and avoiding tobacco products and alcohol in excess to reduce the need and use of medications.
  13. Enas EA. High rates of CAD in Asian Indians in the United States despite intense modification of lifestyle: What next? Current Science. 1998;74:1081-1086. Addresses the judicious use of medications to achieve and maintain optimal levels of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol.
  14. Enas EA, Senthilkumar A, Juturu V, Gupta R. Coronary artery disease in women. Indian Heart Journal. May-Jun 2001;53(3):282-292. Addresses why Indian women have as much heart disease as men despite the absence of smoking as well as features of heart disease that are unique to women.
  15. Anand SS, Enas EA, Pogue J, Haffner S, Pearson T, Yusuf S. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels in South Asians in North America. Metabolism. Feb 1998;47(2):182-184. Reports high levels of lipoprotein(a) among Asian Indians in US and Canada for the first time.
  16. Enas EA. Lipoprotein(a) is an important genetic risk factor for coronary artery disease in Asian Indians. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88:201-202.Addresses the crucial role of lipoprotein(a) in making Indians highly vulnerable to very early heart disease.
  17. Mohan V, Deepa R, Haranath SP, et al. Lipoprotein(a) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in NIDDM patients in South India. Diabetes Care. Nov 1998;21(11):1819-1823. Reports the important role of lipoprotein(a) in the development of heart disease among diabetic subjects in India.
  18. Velmurugan K, Deepa R, Ravikumar R, et al. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) with intimal medial thickness of the carotid artery in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India. Diabet Med. Jun 2003;20(6):455-46 Reports the important role of lipoprotein(a) in the development of silent or subclinical heart disease among diabetic subjects in India.
  19. Enas EA, Dhawan J, Petkar S. Coronary artery disease in Asian Indians: lessons learnt and the role of lipoprotein(a). Indian heart journal. Jan-Feb 1997;49(1):25-34. An in-depth discussion of crucial role of elevated lipoprotein(a) in the heart disease epidemic among Indians.
  20. Enas EA, Chacko V, Senthilkumar A, Puthumana N, Mohan V. Elevated lipoprotein(a)–a genetic risk factor for premature vascular disease in people with and without standard risk factors: a review. Dis Mon. Jan 2006;52(1):5-50. An comprehensive review of Lp(a) in premature CAD among all populations, especially South Asians.
  21. Enas EA, Senthilkumar A., Coronary Artery Disease In Asian Indians: An Update And Review. Internet Journal of Cardiology. 2001; An exhaustive review of heart disease among Indians showing why the risk of developing and dying from heart disease among Indians is atleast double that of the whites at a given level of traditional risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes even when they have access to free comprehensive advanced medical care and medications.
  22. Enas EA. How to Beat the Heart Disease Epidemic among South Asians: A Prevention and Management Guide for Asian Indians and their Doctors. Downers Grove: Advanced Heart Lipid Clinic USA; 2010. A very thorough and comprehensive review of current literature on the epidemic of CAD among South Asians with more than 400 references. This book synthesizes the existing knowledge to live healthy and postpone heart disease death to the eighth decade of life and beyond. This book is suited for both cardiologists and individuals who do not want to be a cardiac patient.
  23. Enas EA, Singh V, Munjal YP, Bhandari S, Yadave RD, Manchanda SC. Reducing the burden of coronary artery disease in India: challenges and opportunities. Indian Heart Journal. Mar-Apr 2008;60(2):161-175. Summarizes the vast information contained in the above book for cardiologists.
  24. Enas EA, Singh V, Gupta R, Patel R, et al. Recommendations of the Second Indo-US Health Summit for the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease among Asian Indians. Indian Heart Journal. 2009;61:265-74. Provides concensus recommendations for specific lower threshold of intervention for Indians that are different from that of Americans and Eurpeans.
  25. Enas E.A., Hancy Chennikkara Pazhoor MD, Arun Kuruvila MBBS, Krishnaswami Vijayaraghavan MD F. Intensive Statin Therapy for Indians:Part I Benefits. Indian Heart Journal. 2010;(In press). Addresses the benefits of lowering LDL cholesterol to previously unimaginable levels.
  26. Enas E.A., Hancy Chennikkara Pazhoor MD, Arun Kuruvila MBBS, Krishnaswami Vijayaraghavan MD F. Intensive Statin Therapy for Indians:Part II Risks Indian Heart Journal. 2010;(In press). Addresses the remarkable safety of many high dose statin medications that are hundred times safer than low dose aspirin.

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